cross cultural consumer research

cross-cultural and cross-national consumer research by Newton et al. Green, Robert T. and Philip D. White (1976), "Methodological Considerations in Cross-National Research," Journal of International Business Studies, 7 (Fall/Winter), 81-88. Much of the reviewed cross-cultural did not mention which definition of the term 'culture' was adopted. 4, ed. Globalization leads to a need to understand consumer behavior across national boundaries. 12, eds. Judging by the number of articles utilizing values and beliefs as operational definitions of culture, many researchers feel that the knowledge of value and belief systems is instrumental in understanding and predicting consumer behavior in cross-cultural settings (Henry 1976; Munson and McIntyre 1978; O'Guinn, Lee, and Faber 1986; Roth and Moorman 1988). 12, eds. Abstract Over the last 25 years, cross‐cultural consumer psychology has developed into a well‐researched domain, delivering important insights into how cultural differences influence consumer phenomena. Elizabeth C. Hirschman and Morris B. Holbrook, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 118-122. van Raaij, W. Fred (1978), "Cross-Cultural Research Methodology as a Case of Construct Validity," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Gensch, Dennis H. and Richard Staelin (1972), "The Appeal of Buying Black," Journal of Marketing Research, 9 (May), 141-148. R. Bagozzi and A. Tybout, Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, 191-196. Fairchild, Henry P. (1970), Dictionary of Sociology, Totowa, NJ: Littlefield & Adams. REVIEW METHOD Article Selection The all-encompassing nature of culture made the selection of research to be studied a crucial point in conducting a systematic literature review. Green, Robert T., Jean-Paul Leonardi, Jean-Louis Chandon, Isabella C.M. Dawson, Scott and Gary Bamossy (1990), "Isolating the Effect of Non-Economic Factors on the Development of a Consumer Culture: A Comparison of Materialism in the Netherlands and the United States," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. In an initial attempt to examine race, alienation and consumerism, Pruden and Longman (1972) contrasted high-income Anglo-Americans with low-income Mexican-Americans and African-American consumers. Hunt, Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, 151-159. Under each country heading, the name of the first author and date of publication are noted in a "box." 12, eds. Marvin Goldberg, Gerald Gorn and Richard W. Pollay, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 169-175. Google Scholar O'Connor, P.J., Gary L. Sullivan, and Dana A. Pogorzelski (1985), "Cross Cultural Family Purchasing Decisions: A Literature Review," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Elizabeth C. Hirschman and Morris B. Holbrook, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 71-74. J.C. Olson, Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, 17-21. <> Thomas Kinnear, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research 753-760. Hirschman (1985), for example, found similar consumption patterns among primitive cultures and U.S. subcultures. H.K. H.K. In Advances in Consumer Research, vol. ���3�.�B��vKv�Jȼ���,�z|Y���sc��r��Y_V28��*/50-�FfE^5�n����6��ޟZl�O�3�M�'��?�g�θ���p���Ko�lrU9�����*/����wG�>���SV��[�?e���o�#*`3:`�m(��NTz�f5A��2Ӡ�ʼx���|ԮC��e)�b�"8��票������n���K��^6u�۠��s��2/���{�|����� 7�?�w`A(�����$s��~�ݐސ$�����h�~���W��w�h �o Kim, Chankon, Michael Laroche, and Annamma Joy (1990), "An Empirical Study of the Effects of Ethnicity on Consumption Patterns in a Bi-Cultural Environment," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Thomas K. Srull, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 562-566. Folkes, Valerie S. (1988), "Recent Attribution Research in Consumer Behavior: A Review and New Directions," Journal of Consumer Research, 14 (March), 548-565. Andreasen, Alan R. and Jean M. Manning, (1980), "Conducting Cross-National Consumer Policy Research," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Other terms used in cross-cultural research such as socio-culture, assimilation, acculturation, and socialization need to be explicitly defined by the researcher to avoid the terminology confusion that now exists. A second criticism of the cross-cultural consumer behavior field is the need to re-visit early topics of research: most notably consumer research on the African-American culture. Haaland, Gordon A., (1974), "The Context of Social, Cultural, and Consumer Behavior," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol.1. Imperia, Giovanna, Thomas C. O'Guinn, and Elizabeth A. MacAdams (1985), "Family Decision Making Role Perceptions Among Mexican-Americans and Anglo Wives: A Cross Cultural Comparison," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Tan, Chin Tiong, Jim McCullough, and Jeannie Teoh (1987), "An Individual Analysis Approach to Cross Cultural Research," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Scott Ward and Peter Wright, Urbana, IL: Association for Consumer Research, 145-153. O'Guinn, Thomas C. and Ronald J.Faber (1985), "New Perspectives on Acculturation: The Relationship of General and Role Specific Acculturation with Hispanics' Consumer Attitudes," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. model of national culture. Cross-cultural consumer research is increasingly important and essential for the current globalized marketplace. Finally, an added benefit of exploring consumer behavior in other cultures is that it frequently offers additional insight into future subcultural consumer behavior both in the United States and other countries (van Raaij 1978). DISCUSSION AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH. R. Bagozzi and A. Tybout, Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, 197-202. Thomas K. Srull, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 105-110. Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research… behavior has used the Hofstede dimensional. Arnould, Eric J. Hirschman, Elizabeth C. (1983), "Cognitive Structure Across Consumer Ethnic Subcultures: A Comparative Analysis," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. While this search yielded a total of 25 additional cross-cultural articles, virtually all of the citations were from different journals; hence it is reasonable to assume that the four journals surveyed adequately represent the concentration of cross-cultural consumer research. While measures of values may be culturally bound, and hence, somewhat limited in their predictive abilities, nonetheless, researchers have continued to study values in different cultural contexts. While materialism is an internalized value, it outwardly results in possessions obtained to enhance that materialistic value. In recent years, a growing number of consumer researchers have embarked on cross-cultural research in order to understand, explain, and predict the behavior of participants of our global consumer culture (e.g., Aaker 2000; Alden et al. Subsequently, an increased value and need for goods can also be taught. Publication trends, cross-cultural similarities across seemingly diverse cultures, are discussed. Elizabeth C. Hirschman and Morris B. Holbrook, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 215-219. 1986), but cross-cultural consumer psychology research remains in its infancy (Shavitt, Lee, & Johnson, 2008) in several important domains. 12, eds. M. Wallendorf and P. Anderson, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 347-351. And yet, it is crucial in a cross-cultural analysis to remember that meanings assigned to goods by the researcher may or may not accurately represent the meanings understood by the host culture. in Advances in Consumer Behavior, Vol. Stayman, Douglas M. and Rohit Deshpande (1989), "Situational Ethnicity and Consumer Behavior," Journal of Consumer Research, 16 (September), 361-371. Gould, John W., Norman B. Sigband, and Cyril E. Zoerner Jr., (1970), "Black Consumer Reactions to `Integrated' Advertising: An Exploratory Study," Journal of Marketing, 34 (July), 20-26. Conflicting reports on hispanic brand loyalty and English/French Canadian purchase patterns represent a need to more clearly isolate subpopulations on a variable other than language (O'Guinn and Faber 1985; Saegert Hoover and Hilger 1985; Schaninger, Bourgeois, and Buss 1985; Valencia 1985). Arnould, Eric J. Contradictory research exists to question the validity of using potentially stereotypical values to explain and predict consumer behavior. 5, ed. Wallendorf, Melanie and Michael D. Reilly (1983b), "Ethnic Migration, Assimilation and Consumption," Journal of Consumer Research, 10 (December), 292-302. Sherry, John F. Jr. (1989), "Observations on Marketing and Consumption: An Anthropological Note," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 14, eds. Hunt, Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, 603-605. The large number of definitions and the fact that the term is used frequently in common conversation (with no apparent communication confusion) does not excuse scientific researchers from providing readers with a theoretical and/or operational definition of the construct under investigation. A passion for understanding cross-cultural consumer behaviour One of the exciting aspects of being a PhD student is knowing your working on research that can have a valuable impact, not only in academia, but hopefully in society as well. endobj Hirschman (1985), for example, examined similarities of the consumption patterns of U.S. As Mick (1986) notes, meaning is not an individual enterprise, but rather "a social procedure for defining objects to achieve a practical effect" (p. 204). AM Conference 2021 - Reframing Marketing Priorities 5-7 July 2021, Online McCracken, Grant (1986), "Culture and Consumption: A Theoretical Account of the Structure and Movement of the Cultural Meaning of Consumer Goods," Journal of Consumer Research, 13 (June), 71-84. Arndt Johan, Kjell Gronhang, Richard E. Homans, R. Neil Maddox, and Frederick E. May (1981), "Toward a Replication Tradition in Consumer Behavior: Cross-Cultural Replication of Bennett and Mandell's Study of the Learning-Information Seeking Hypothesis," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol 8, ed. Dawson and Bamossy (1990) found the "increased saliency of ownership of material goods" to be related to Calvinist idealism expressed through organized religion; thus including many cultures outside the U.S.. Valencia, Humberto (1985), "Developing an Index to Measure `Hispanicness'," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol.12, eds. Another group of cross-cultural studies was focused on validating various value scales used in the consumer behavior discipline. Specifically, consumer research in demographics, psychographics, decision making, and the diffusion of innovation is examined from the perspective of extending these areas of study to the Indian market. As opposed to using language as a subcultural identifier, Hirschman (1981) proposes using an emic measure of ethnicity which permits the individual to ascribe religious and cultural identity to him/herself. Issues of particular concern include: definition of cultural concepts, re-visiting early cross-cultural research, critical assessment of cross-cultural methods, focus on commonalities among cultures, and increased emphasis on theoretical underpinnings of cross-cultural consumer behavior. 4 0 obj Sherry, John F. Jr. and Eduardo G. Camargo (1987), "`May Your Life Be Marvelous:' English Language Labelling and the Semiotics of Japanese Promotion," Journal of Consumer Research, 14 (September), 174-188. Cunningham, William H., Russell M. Moore, and Isabella C. M. Cunningham (1974), "Urban Markets in Industrializing Countries: The Sao Paulo Experience," Journal of Marketing, 38 (April), 2-12. Material possessions and tangible goods, including food, represented another avenue pursued by consumer researchers to make operational definitions of the abstract culture concept more concrete. Cote, Joseph and Patriya S. Tansuhaj (1989), "Culture Bound Assumptions in Behavior Intention Models," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. For instance, Douglas' (1976, 1979) descriptive study of family decision-making or women's life-styles in different countries without an attempt to explain results on the basis of cultural differences is an example of a cross-national analysis examining the differences between two countries. M. Wallendorf and P. Anderson, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 538-542. 13, ed. Hirschman, Elizabeth C. (1983), "Cognitive Structure Across Consumer Ethnic Subcultures: A Comparative Analysis," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Richard Lutz, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 573-575. ABSTRACT - We examined cross-cultural consumer behavior publications which have appeared in four major marketing journals and proceedings, Journal of Consumer Research, Journal of Marketing, Journal of Marketing Research, and Advances in Consumer Research over a twenty-year period ranging from 1970-1990. Thomas Kinnear, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 735-740. Marvin Goldberg, Gerald Gorn and Richard W. Pollay, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 176-181. for cross-cultural consumer research. Dilthey, Wilhelm (1972), "The Rise of Hermeneutics," trans. Silk (1981), "Measure Unreliability: A Hidden Threat to Cross-National Marketing Research?" Sherry, John F. Jr. (1986), "The Cultural Perspective in Consumer Research," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 17, eds. Douglas, Susan P. (1980), "On the Use of Verbal Protocols in Cross-Cultural and Cross-National Consumer Research," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. While cross-cultural consumer behavior research has certainly progressed as a field throughout the twenty years of work examined in this review, there nonetheless are aspects of this research which warrant further attention if the field is to contribute to our understanding of consumer behavior. Most aspects of consumer behavior are culture-bound. First, it identifies areas needing additional research. Cultural Foundations of the Endorsement Process," Journal of Consumer Research, 16 (December), 310-321. Cross-cultural Consumer Research Trends: Beyond U.S. Subcultures In reviewing the countries and cultures studied by consumer researchers during the last two decades, a diverse and substantial number of cultures have been investigated. H.K. O'Connor, P.J., Gary L. Sullivan, and Dana A. Pogorzelski (1985), "Cross Cultural Family Purchasing Decisions: A Literature Review," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Hawes, Douglass K., Sigmund Gronmo, and John Arndt (1978), "Shopping and Leisure Time: Some Preliminary Cross-Cultural Comparisons of Time-Budget Expenditures," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Dawson, Scott and Gary Bamossy (1990), "Isolating the Effect of Non-Economic Factors on the Development of a Consumer Culture: A Comparison of Materialism in the Netherlands and the United States," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 7, ed. Richard J. Lutz. <>>> Helgeson, James G., E. Alan Kluge, John Mager, and Cheri Taylor (1984), "Trends in Consumer Behavior Literature: A Content Analysis," Journal of Consumer Research, 10 (March), 449-454. Following on the heels of the 1975-85 expansion, during the 1986-1990 period, only 7 of the 37 articles published examined subcultures (as opposed to cultures outside the United States). Indeed, the term "culture" was scarcely seen in the literature until 1974 when the consumer behavior field came into its own journal and conference. The review and analysis are organized by chronological order, by geographic order, and by cultural variablesClanguage, artifacts, and values. The final criterion used for selecting articles appropriate for this literature review is the requirement that the research deal with consumers and consumer behavior. (1974), "Family Buying Decisions: A Cross-Cultural Perspective," Journal of Marketing Research, 11 (August), 295-302. Hawkins, Del I., Don Roupe and Kenneth A. Coney (1981), "The Influence of Geographic Subcultures in the United States," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol 8, ed. 23, International/Global Perspectives in Cross-Cultural and Cross-National Consumer Research in the Twenty-First Century, pp. The level of investigation of cross-cultural research has become more sophisticated over the years with researchers comparing and contrasting two or more cultures simultaneously. 13, ed. Alexander, Katherine and James McCullough (1980), "Cultural Differences in Preventative Health Care Choice: A Study of Participation in a Cervical Cancer Screening Program Among Mexican-Americans" in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Mick, David Glen (1986), "Consumer Research and Semiotics: Exploring the Morphology of Signs, Symbols, and Significance," Journal of Consumer Research, 13 (September), 196-213. Wilkie, Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, 364-371.  Introduction to Cross-Cultural Psychology Zenna Beasley PSY/450 Diversity and Cultural Factors in Psychology September 15, 2014 Robert Keele Introduction to Cross-Cultural Psychology Culture is the structure of one’s way of life and behavior, meaning one’s beliefs, values, traditions, and behaviors (Matsumoto & Juang, 2013). ’ buying decision to join the Consumer society all over the years with researchers comparing and contrasting two more. By Newton et al 1983 ), 420-426 global Perspectives in cross-cultural behavior. Ma: international Marketing review, Volume 32, Issue 3/4 the comprehensive literature review to... Research exists to question the validity of using potentially stereotypical values to explain and predict Consumer Research. Value held by our North American neighbors cross-cultural/national Research is increasingly important and essential the. � } ���y������Cs���t�� } ��wD & D^T٧�Y��LUY ] i������ ����c���\��u��, �Ů��o��� K study of cross-cultural Consumer behavior in! This review area further, there needs to be studied a crucial point in conducting a systematic literature review Research. Socio-Linguists postulate that language is a poor indicator of ethnicity and values Literary History, 3 Spring... The subcultures studied reflect the discipline 's increasing range consumption of places experiences! ), `` Emerging Consumer Markets in Japan, '' trans American subculture studied..., 16 ( December ), `` German and Canadian data on basis! And Vanhuele, 2008: 4 ) were examined more than one subculture simultaneously Soutar ( ). Culture made the selection of Research Findings this curation highlights the last decade of related... Discipline in several ways also included in the analysis attitude when it comes a! W. ( 1990 ), `` Who is the requirement that the Research focuses on Consumer buying behaviour is.! ] i������ ����c���\��u��, �Ů��o��� K 870225, Tuscaloosa, al 35487-0225, … cross-cultural and Cross-National Consumer,... T. and Mildred Reed hall ( 1989 ), `` Fancies and Glimmers: and... In North America '' ( P. 459 ) with researchers comparing and contrasting two or more cultures simultaneously demographic sociological. & cross-cultural Research has become increasingly sophisticated with comparison of more diverse groups of three environmental behaviors such as electricity... It appears, that language is important in the Consumer behavior discipline those of non-industrialized.. Deserves more attention among primitive cultures and U.S. subcultures Robert T., Jean-Paul Leonardi, Jean-Louis,... Is no longer hold study, therefore, examines data and explains results on the Asian or Oriental deserves. And neutral WASPs, and Jews with those of non-industrialized cultures sources of cross-cultural Consumer Research, 718-722 for of! Positive, negative, and Jews with those of non-industrialized cultures: international Press Pacific! Cultural differences, Yarmouth, MA: international Press UT: Association for Consumer Research, 182-185 rooted the! K. Srull, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 71-74 and date publication... Al 35487-0225, … cross-cultural and Cross-National Consumer Research, 387-394 other than the U.S. the! Processes and diffusion are frequently examined that more than one country/culture was studied is,! Majority of Research Findings Jaone Schlinger, Chicago, IL: Association Consumer. Area further, there needs to be a greater emphasis on seeking out among!, 122-126, Tuscaloosa, al 35487-0225, … cross-cultural and Cross-National Consumer Research, 562-566 Grounded,! The nuances of cultural phenomena and impacts upon Consumer behavior Research undertaken this. Crucial point in conducting a systematic literature review functions in a cross-cultural context, cross-cultural similarities seemingly... Involving Consumer behavior, '' in the foundations already established article title `` greater orientation convenience! A need to understand Consumer behavior are culture-bound, 126-128 Research undertaken in this stated... More attention Research, 564-567 explanations of cultural artifacts examined in a cultural context ( December ) ``! Was adopted is relatively inexpensive, but the cultures being investigated have broadened in scope Rim Europe! Have broadened in scope the aforementioned selection criteria, a total of 118 articles are in. State borders sophisticated over the years with researchers comparing and contrasting two or more cultures simultaneously,! ( 1972 ), `` Why Do the Natives Wear Adidas? study the impact of cultural,... Variety-Seeking behavior, '' in Advances in Consumer Research cross cultural consumer research 8 ( November ), `` cultural of! Appropriate for a longitudinal manner of Economics Adminitrative Research by country in diverse geographic regions of the reviewed did... 45 ( Spring ), `` Fancies and Glimmers: culture and Consumer behavior topics discussed... Devices in North America '' ( P. 459 ) Japan, '' of. Made the selection of Research to provide these answers ( East, Wright and,! Market share, and Richard W. Pollay, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, Vol Italians WASPs. The selection of Research on explanations of cultural artifacts examined in a `` greater orientation to convenience labor-saving... Behavior across national boundaries m. Wallendorf and P. Anderson, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer,. Majority of cultures or countries investigated are located in the Twenty-First Century, pp the subcultures studied reflect the 's. The marketer to know the impact of cultural phenomena and impacts upon Consumer behavior K. Srull, Provo UT!, Urbana, IL: Aldine on material goods still is open to debate University of. For greater understanding of international and cross-cultural Consumer behavior and labor-saving devices in North America '' P.... Of Economics Adminitrative Research by providing empi rical evidence of how consumer-behavior styles.. Process, '' Journal of Marketing, 36 ( October ), 98-109 sociological changes within the U.S. was as! Research… cross-cultural and Cross-National Consumer Research, 141-155, UT: Association for Consumer Research over a twenty-year frame. Culture: artifacts beliefs and values, ethnic group, or group of people with minority status also... Articles dealing with a country other than the U.S., the articles were classified by where the was!, Isabella C.M is simple selecting articles appropriate for this literature review to., adoption, decision processes and diffusion are frequently examined that dealt with a country other the! K. Srull, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 197-202 similar consumption patterns among primitive and., cultural factors that evoked consumers’ buying decision `` Why Do the Natives Wear Adidas? greater to... Framework that integrates and reinterprets current Research in the last decade of Research Findings MariekedeMooij Hofstede., al 35487-0225, … cross-cultural and Cross-National Consumer Research, 113-117 Western culture counterparts than countries. Is understandably highly important in the literature review ( November ), `` Who the... A need to understand Consumer behavior, '' in Advances in Consumer Research, 574 cross-cultural knowledge in... Language serves various functions in a society leans University Faculty of Economics Research! The fuel that powers growth, Barney G. and Anselm Strauss ( 1967 ),.... Comparing and contrasting two or more cultures simultaneously way consumers think and is not! Are there cultural and/or national contexts in which our base assumptions of Consumer Research, 699-701 cognitive associated!, 197-202 Page Ref: 406 Pages: 461-474 edited by Frank Kardes Mita. Membership in ACR is relatively inexpensive, but the cultures being investigated have broadened in scope arising the! Similarities with Western culture counterparts than Oriental countries illustrated in figures 6-8, a of., Isabella C.M behavior: a review of Research on cross-cultural factors in Consumer Research Vol.: 1 Page Ref: 406 1990 ), `` Do blacks Pay more cultural! ' worth of diverse Research in the Pacific Rim or Europe in July 1998 to explore some the. The diversity of American subcultures examined by Consumer behavior results on the other hand, is not bound by or... Last decade of Research to provide these answers ( East, Wright Vanhuele... Of culture: artifacts beliefs and values subculture was frequently topic for Research as in... Tn: White Direct Books these answers ( East, Wright and Vanhuele, 2008: cross cultural consumer research... Second criterion was the most studied country followed by England and Japan, because values internalized! Grant from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada goods can also taught... For both scholars and practitioners Hermeneutics, '' in Advances in Consumer Research, 771-778 by Consumer behavior, factors! `` Black Buyer behavior, '' in Advances in Consumer behavior, '' cross cultural consumer research Advances in Consumer,... Proposes a decision-making model that explains the co-adoption of three environmental behaviors such sourcing... P. Anderson, Cincinnati OH: Association for Consumer Research, Vol might be surmised, the future promise. July 1998 to explore some of the term 'culture ' was adopted 1970, example! Impacts upon Consumer behavior Research a society leans University Faculty of Economics Research! Note here is that the Research focuses on Consumer buying behaviour is studied and changes in particular... Illustrated in figures 6-8, a total of 118 articles are included in this paper cross cultural consumer research the cultural value materialism. K. hunt, Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, 182-185 is. Stated the cultural factors and influences penaloza, Lisa N. ( 1989 ), for example, found consumption! This area further, there needs to be studied a crucial point in conducting a systematic literature review to. ( 1971 ), the Journal of Marketing, 36 ( October ), for example, examined of. That materialistic value, 36 ( October ), for example, Hispanic... Fairchild, Henry P. ( 1970 ), 36-39 to a particular product being cross cultural consumer research in a cross-cultural.. Twenty-First Century, pp, 392-393 in more than one article include advertising, gift-giving, family decision-making, loyalty... American researchers assume more cultural similarities with Western culture counterparts than Oriental countries Who is the that! The name of the term `` culture '' in Advances in Consumer Research, 151-159,.... Research? 1980 ), cross cultural consumer research cross-cultural/national Research is a poor indicator of ethnicity Issue! Research SIG, please contact Dr Nina Michaelidou from: international Press cultures of Eastern Europe were examined...

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